There are three basic requirements for agriculture production. Soil, Seed and Water.In addition to that fertilizers, insecticides, sunshine, suitable atmospheric temperature. Human labour is also needed. But water appears to be the most important requirement of all the above for agriculture production. So, we apply water by artificially to the soil for better agriculture production. This is called irrigation.
The artificial application of water to soil to supplement the natural moisture in the root zone soil for agriculture production is called irrigation.
In other words, we can say that irrigation is the planning and designing of a water supply system. Especially for the agricultural land to protect our crops from the bad effect of drought or low rainfall.
The necessity of irrigation:
There are four necessities of irrigation.
- Insufficient irrigation to many crops
- Uneven distribution of rain in different areas
- To improve the perennial crops
- For the development of agricultural crops in desert areas
Functions of irrigation:
- Supply water to the soil for the germination of seeds.
- It is also important for bacterial, chemical processes.Most probably enzymatic processes necessary for plant growth.
- Cool down the soil and surrounding environment to make it more favourable for plant growth.
- It dilutes and washes out all the salts present in the soil.
- Softens downs the clods in the soil and thus helps in tillage practices.
- It makes the application of fertilizers very easy.
- Reduces the adverse effects of frost on crops.
- It ensures the success of crops in short duration droughts.
- Helpful in Increasing the yield of crops.
- Protects the crops from famine.
- It makes the farmer more prosper.
- Beneficial improvement of cash crops.
- It is the source of revenue.
- Helps in Navigation.
- It can be used for Hydroelectric power generation
- Supply of water to plants.
- General communication.
- Also useful in Development of fishery.
Ill effects of irrigation:
- It raises the water table.
- Causes the Formation of marshy lands.
- More dampness in weather.
- Loss of valuable lands.
- Unproper Use ultimately causes economic loss.