Introduction to cotton:

The scientific name of cotton is Gossypium hirsutum L. It is an annual fibre crop which is also called as KAPPAS in Urdu and PHUTTI, KAPPA in Punjabi.It belongs to the Malvaceae family. Above all, It is the most common fibre and cash crop.

Types of Cotton:

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Properties :

  • It is a perennial crop but grows as an annual crop in Pakistan.
  • Grows in the kharif season and have inderminate growth pattren.
  • It is day neutral plant.
  • seeds are dicot means having two coteyledons.
  • It is Self pollinated crop (20 %cross pollination) .

Top cotton producing countries:

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cotton in pakistan agriculture
cotton in pakistan agriculture

Cotton production in Pakistan:

Pakistan ranks 4th in the production of cotton in the world.

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Importance of cotton:

  • It is used as a raw material for the textile industry.
  • Used to make vegetable oil/edible oil.
  • The seed cake is used as a feed for animals.
  • It gives us a high foreign exchange and high revenue.
  • Cotton is also called white gold.

There are five basic uses of cotton.

  • FOOD
  • FEED
  • FIBRE
  • FUEL
  • FORAGE
Cotton industry
Cotton industry

Types of Branches:

Sympodial Branches:
• These are the Fruit-bearing branches.
• It arises from monopodial.
Monopodial Branches:
• These are Non-fruit bearing branches.
• It arises from the main stem.

Origin:

  • Tropical & Subtropical desserts and hot dry regions of Asia, Australia and America.
  • Egyptian cotton originates in Africa.
  • American cotton originates in America.
  • Indian cotton originates in Subcontinent.
  • New varieties originated by crossing.

Climate:

  • Germination temperature:  15 -18 °C
  • Vegetative Growth:  21-26 °C
  • Flower Bud initiation: 21 °C
  • Reproductive Stage: 26-32 °C
  • The temperature of more than 35 °C is not desired.
  • 40 – 45 °C can be managed by irrigation.

Soil:

  • Adapted to a wide range of soils.
  • It is well adapted to heavy loam soils.
  • Soil with good drainage.
  • It is tolerant to salinity. 
cotton leaf
cotton leaf

Roots:

  • Contains the tap root system.
  • It goes deeper if moisture is less.
  • Roots can be 3-4 m Deep.
  • Long roots are called PRIMARY ROOTS.
  • SECONDARY ROOTS originates from primary roots.

Inflorescence:

  • The flower is a complete flower.
  • It contains many floral buds.
  • The flower is enclosed in green sepals.
  • Petal opens pink, white purple, yellow or mahroon colours.

Primary Tillage:

  • It requires 4-5 Ploughings.
  • Breaking of Hard Pan.
  • Requires 2-3 plankings.
  • Land must be properly levelled.
  • Mouldboard plough is used.

Sed bed Preparation:

  • 2 Ploughings before sowing.
  • Requires 2 Planking.
  • Seeds bed must be very fine.
  • There must be more moisture than optimum.
  • Moisture must not too wet to hinder cultivation to ploughing.

Sowing time:

  • MID-APRIL – END OF JUNE (GENERAL)
  • 15 MAY – 15 JUNE (AMERICAN)
  • APRIL (DESI)
Cotton Seeds
Cotton Seeds

Seed rate:

  • 12 – 15 Kg ha-1 (DESI)
  • 15-20 Kg ha-1 (AMERICAN)
  • 70,000 – 75,000 Plants ha-1

Sowing Methods:

  • Line Sowing
  • Kharif Drill
  • Ridge Sowing

Fertilizer Requirements:

  • 100: 70: 70 (NPK) Kg ha-1
  • One-third N & Whole P & K at Sowing.
  • Remaning One-third N at 1st Irrigation.
  • Remaining One-third N at flowering stage.

Irrigations:

  • Delay 1st irrigation 40-45 Days.
  • Total 5-6 Irrigations required.
  • Irrigation after every 10-15 Days.

Varieties(BT):

  • ALI AKBAR 703, 806
  • NEELAM 121
  • FH 114
  • IR 3, 1524, 3701
  • CIM 598
  • NS 141
  • SITARA 008, 009
  • MNH 886
  • A ONE
  • MG 6
  • TARZAN 1
  • GN HYBRID 2085

Varieties(Traditional):

  • CIM 496, 506, 554, 573
  • MNH 786
  • CRSM 38
  • SMH 151
  • SLH 317
  • BH 167
  • FH 942
  • NIAB 852
  • NIBGE 115

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