Introduction:

The Scientific name of maize is Zea mays L. It belongs to the poaece family. In Urdu, it is called as Makai. In Punjabi, it is called as Maki. It is the third largest crop of Pakistan after wheat and rice.

Properties of maize:

Maize is an annual plant. It is a short day plant therefore it needs long night for flowering. It has determinate growth patren.It has cross pollination.

Importance Of maize:

  • It is the 3rd major cereal crop after (WHEAT & RICE).
  • It is used as fresh and dried fodder.
  • Maize contains 85 % CHO & 5-7 % OIL.
  • It is use for making corn oil, pop corn, entergile etc.
  • Its grains are used as flour. It is use for making bread,soups etc.
a typical corn fruit
maize fruit

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COUNTRYPRODUCTION (T)
USA316,165,000
CHINA177,540,788
BRAZIL55,394,800
MEXICO23,301,900
ARGENTINA22,676,900

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Climate Requirment:

  • Temperature:
  • MIN. TEMP. = 10 °C
  • OPT. TEMP. = 16-18 °C
  • It is sensitive to a very high temperature.
  • Leaf burn in May-June (hot winds).
  • It prefers high humidity.
  • It is drought resistance at the early stages.
    (compared with grain development stage)

Soil Requirment:

  • It grows well in medium textured well drain loam soil.
  • Can’t be grown in dry and sandy soil.
  • It is sensitive to salinity.

Sowing time:

  • SPRING:
  • Mid January to End February
  • AUTUMN (SEASONAL):
  • 1 st week of July to 10th August
  • Early maturing varieties can be sown up to 20th August

Seed Rate:

  • Its seed rate is 8 – 10 Kg per Acre
Maize seeds

Critical growth stages:

  • Seedling stage
  •  Grand growth stage
  •  Tasseling stage
  •  Silking stage
  •  Soft dough Stage
  •  Hard dough stage

Harvesting:

  • Short duration varieties mature in 90 DAYS.
  • However,long duration varities matures in 120 DAYS
  • Cob changes colour and grains become hard.
  • In addition the silk become brown. SILK BECOMES BROWN
  • Cobs are store in heaves for 3-4 DAYS.

Yield:

The hybrids of maize are high yielding and therefore they produce more than 120 munds per acre. However, the yield of local varieties is 40 to 50 munds per acre.

Irrigation:

  • 3-4 Days After Germination
  • 7-10 days interval in light soils
  • 10-15 days interval in heavy soils FLOWERING & FERTILIZATION
  • 2 days dryness 20 % yield reduction
  • 1 week dryness 50 % yield reduction

Common Varities:

  • AZAM
  • PAHARI
  • SARHAD SUFAID
  • SARHAD ZARD
  • JALAL 2003
  • SAHIWAL 2002
  • MMRI YELLOW

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