Introduction:

The scientific name of sugarcane is “Saccharum officinarum L.”It belongs to poaece family .In Urdu it is called Naishkar. Furthermore in Punjabi it is called ganna or kamad. There are several varities of sugarcane.

cane crop
cane crop

It is the largest cash crop of Pakistan. It mainly grows in Pakistan for sugar production. It is also used for the production of gur, shaker and desi cheni in the villages of Pakistan. Many farmers grow it for getting a good profit.

Varieties of Sugarcane:

Scientific Names

Common Name

Saccharum oficinarumAmerican Cane
Saccharum sinenseChinese Cane
Saccharum barberiIndian Cane
Saccharum spontaneumWild Asian cane
Saccharum robustumWild cane of New Guinea

Properties of Sugarcane:

It is a perennial crop. It has C4 pathway. Thatswhy, It is a highly Photosynthetically active plant. It has a Determinate growth pattern. So, they mature at once and harvest at once. It has an open flower structure. Due to which it is a cross-pollinated crop.

“The seed of sugarcane is called Fuzz.”

Sugarcane
Sugarcane

Component

Percentage

Fiber11-16%
Soluble Sugars12-16%
Non-Sugars2-3%
Water63-73%

Importance of Sugarcane:

  • It is usually used for sugar extraction.
  • Similarly it Baggas is used for making Chipboard, paper, and hardboard
  • Molasses of cane also used for making Alcohol.
  • Its tops and trash are used as fodder
  • Above all, it is used for making gur, Shakar, and desicheni
Typical sugarcane plant
Typical sugarcane plant

Soil requirements:

  • It can grow well in drained heavy to loam soil.
  • Soil with high organic matter.
  • It maybe grows well in sensitive to saline soils.

TOP Sugarcane producing COUNTRIES :

CountriesPRODUCTION (Tons)
BRAZIL717,462,000
 INDIA292,300,000
CHINA111,454,359
THAILAND68,807,800
PAKISTAN79,900,302

 

Pakistan Production in 2016-17:

Pakistan ranked 5th in the production of sugarcane.Pakistan produces almost 79.9 million tons of sugarcane per year.It is cultivated on almost 1.217 million hectare area in Pakistan.Its average yield is probably 60.4 T per hectare.It is very much less than developed countries.

“The average per person sugar consumption in Pakistan is 25.10 Kg “

Sowing Methods:

  • Flat sowing
  • Trench sowing
  • Pit Planting
sugar cane nursery
sugar cane nursery

Planting time of Sugarcane:

In-time planting of sugarcane from 15th February to 15th March
in spring planting and a full month of September in case of autumn
planting increases the cane yield. However, the crop should be planted
in the month of January before the seed is damaged by frost in
areas of severe frost. If the crop is sown in January then use of
chlorpyrifos @ 2 liters per acre is essential to save the cane setts
from termite attack as the setts remain in the field for a longer
period before their germination in spring (February).

Seed Rate :

  • 75,000 Double Budded Setts per ha
  • 30,000 Double Budded Setts per acre
  • 250-300 maunds per ha
  • 100-120 maunds per acre
  • 40 marlas (normal crop) per ha
  • 16 marlas (normal crop) per acre

Harvesting time:

  • SPRING SOWINGis harvested in January/Feb
  • SEPTEMBER SOWING is harvested in October/November
harvesting of cane
harvesting of cane

Varieties of Punjab:

  • CP 77- 400, CP 72-2086, CP 43- 33
  • CPF 237, CPF 243, CPF 246, CPF 247, CPF 248
  • SPF 213, SPF 234, SPF 245
  • HSF 240, HSF 242

NOTE: COJ 284 NOTE: SPF 234 IS ONLY RECOMMENDED FOR DISTRICT RAJARPUR,BHAWALPUR AND RAHIM YAR KHAN

Common Diseases:

  • Red rot is one of major Sugarcane disease
  • Smilarly Whip Smut is also major disease.
Smutted cane
Smutted cane

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